Berghahn Books; 1st edition (October 1, 2020), edited by Stephan Astourian and Raymond Kévorkian

“Turkey has gone through significant transformations over the last century—from the Ottoman Empire and Young Turk era to the Republic of today—but throughout it has demonstrated troubling continuities in its encouragement and deployment of mass violence. In particular, the construction of a Muslim-Turkish identity has been achieved in part by designating “internal enemies” at whom public hatred can be directed. This volume provides a wide range of case studies and historiographical reflections on the alarming recurrence of such violence in Turkish history, as atrocities against varied ethnic-religious groups from the nineteenth century to today have propelled the nation’s very sense of itself.”

Stephan Astourian is the William Saroyan Director of the Armenian Studies Program at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also an Associate Adjunct Professor in Armenian and Caucasian history in its Department of History.

Raymond Kévorkian is a historian, Director of research emeritus at the Institut Français de Géopolitique (Université Paris 8, Saint-Denis), and President of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Foundation (Erevan). He is the author of works on the Ottoman Armenian society, especially on mass violence.


Introduction (download PDF)Raymond H. Kévorkian


Chapter 1. On the Genealogy of the Armenian-Turkish Conflict, Sultan Abdülhamid, and the Armenian Massacres, Stephan H. Astourian

Chapter 2. The Long Assyrian Genocide, David Gaunt

Chapter 3. The Hamidian Massacres: Gendered Violence, Biopolitics, and National Honor, Aysenur Korkmaz

Chapter 4. On Collective Responsibility in the Extermination of Ottoman Armenians,Raymond H. Kévorkian

Chapter 5. The Final Phase: The Cleansing of Armenian and Greek Survivors (1919–1922), Raymond H. Kévorkian

Chapter 6. Collective State Violence against Greeks in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1821–1923, George Shirinian


Chapter 7. The Attempted Pogrom Against the Jews of Thrace, June–July 1934, Rifat Bali

Chapter 8. A History of Armenians Remaining in Turkey: Survival and Denial, Talin Suciyan

Chapter 9. The Events of September 6–7, 1955: Greeks, Armenians, and Jews within the Context of the Strategies of the Turkish Republic, Dilek Güven

Chapter 10. State Violences in “Kurdistan”, Mesut Yeğen

Chapter 11. Physical and Epistemic Violence against Alevis in Modern Turkey, Markus Dressler

Chapter 12. Inscriptions of Denial of the Armenian Genocide in Memory Narrations from Dersim, Annika Törne

Chapter 13. The Yazidis: Resilience in Times of Violence, Caroline Schneider


Chapter 14. “Who Did This to Us?” Blaming the Enemies as Part of Turkey’s Authoritarian Political Culture, Uǧur Derin

Chapter 15. Violence and Its Masks: History and Nation, Etienne Copeaux

Chapter 16. Public Violence in Turkey (19th–21st Centuries), Hans-Lukas Kieser

Chapter 17. Structures of Power, Coercion, and Violence in Republican Turkey, Hamit Bozarslan

In Lieu of a Conclusion: Shapes, Legitimation, and Legacies of Violence in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey,Stephan H. Astourian